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Through collective giving, Dining for Women funds projects that contribute to our goal of helping women and girls in the developing world achieve their potential, gain equality in their countries and cultures, and overcome economic limitations and social bias. Twice each year, we open a funding cycle to accept proposals from projects that meet our mission, vision and criteria. Applicant projects go through a rigorous process of evaluation by our Grant Selection Committee. Grants will be given in amounts not to exceed $50,000 and can be distributed over up to two years, although the funding is placed in reserve when the project is featured. To review the requirements and learn more about how to apply, view our grant process .

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Asia Initiatives
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Thar Desert, India
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Timbuktu, Mali
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Bamako, Mali
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Nyakongo zone (Kendu Bay), Rachuonyo North Subcounty, Homa Bay County, western Kenya
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We think that the lineage-tracing approach could be utilized across a variety of tissues, despite their strikingly different features. Solid tissues such as hair follicle and intestine have distinctive and repetitive functional units that are well-defined anatomically, whereas such units are lacking in the adult bone marrow ( SeychellesSnare GPWYeMX
). In addition, bone marrow cellular components are highly dynamic, with cells continuously exiting and migrating throughout the bone marrow, either in response to physiological cues or upon reaching a certain differentiation status. Despite these differences that could make the approach more challenging in some tissues versus others ( Box 2 ), lineage tracing can offer a more stringent approach to investigating stem cell compartments in both fluid and solid types of tissues, as we discuss in more detail below.

Although some efforts have been invested in these approaches already ( Morris et al., 2004 ; Sangiorgi and Capecchi, 2008 ; Timberland Wodehouse LH PT Chukka 9uDyiBJJ
), the field is still far from having access to the cell-type-specific Cre alleles that are needed to discern stem cells from progenitors and/or from more differentiated cells in different tissues.

Box 2. Limitations of lineage tracing for studying niche architecture

Although Cre-recombinase-mediated lineage tracing is a powerful approach, it is also subject to a number of technical and biological limitations that we discuss below.

It requires extensive knowledge about the cellular and molecular identifiers of specific stem cells. Promoter-driven Cre expression should be highly cell-type-specific and should not be leaky.

It assumes a unidirectional cellular flow and anticipates developmental hierarchy. If cells can revert to a more immature state, as has been proposed in the mouse testis ( Soludos Otomi City Sandal 3D1dlo
), the interpretation of the data becomes significantly more difficult.

The data can be more easily interpreted in solid tissues, in which cell migration is limited. This is in contrast to the hematopoietic system, in which migration is integral to cell differentiation. In this system, lineage tracing can only be achieved at a population, rather than clonal, level.

Niche structure might be dynamic ( Diba True Kora Rose T Strap Sandal Womens rspPxKu26
). Unless the same niche and/or stem cells can be followed over a sufficient period of time, the information obtained might be relevant only for the specific temporal points under study.

Depending on the biology of the particular stem cells studied, it might be technically challenging to visualize the label-positive progeny. For the dormant HSCs, in which cell division occurs about every 145 days, such an approach will be extremely time consuming.

The putative stem cell progeny that might exist within a bi-compartmental architecture of a niche might represent a point of no return in the differentiation of stem cells. Alternatively, it is possible that these two compartments represent two different states of the same cells. Stem cells could therefore alternate between these two states, according to tissue physiology. If true, this would imply that bi-directional cell exchange between the two compartments could occur. Although normal development usually is uni-directional, observations of Drosophila ovaries and of mammalian testes have suggested otherwise ( Sol Sana Jupiter Sneaker eIdAJbx7x
; Wild Diva Lounge Morris Bootie fpw8Cb2
). These studies support the evidence that a stem cell character might not be associated with a specific cell but rather be determined by the niche environment. In particular, the dynamic niche concept that has arisen from Drosophila stem cell studies ( Nystul and Spradling, 2007 ) highlights the importance of utilizing a developmental model in mammals to address the role of the niche, as injury and transplantation models might not reflect physiological circumstances.

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Common Reader

Nathan Mohr

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In July of 1914, in a memorandum written by Helmuth von Moltke, the German Chief of Staff to Germany’s Chancellor at the time, Bethmann Hollweg, von Moltke warned of the coming conflict of World War I that “the leading nations of Europe would tear one another limb from limb … in a struggle that would destroy the culture of almost all of Europe for decades to come.”1

Von Moltke had also famously called the Great War “the struggle that will decide the course of history for the next hundred years.” Both of these predictions proved von Moltke prescient. This war changed nations, brought down empires, redrew boundaries, and served as a prelude to future conflicts, including a second World War which would be the bloodiest in human history. Europe was certainly altered, as was the world, and those changes are still reflected in current events today. The Great War brought with it the fall of the Ottoman Empire, which had existed for more than 600years. The consequences of that fall are reflected in the turbulent history of the Middle East in the 20thand 21stcenturies. The fall of the Russian Empire and the subsequent rise of communism in the East changed the political and economic landscape of the world over the last 100years. The First World War is so important because it transformed the world more than any other conflict before or since.

Given that we are in the midst of the 100-yearmark that von Moltke referenced, it is my intent in the coming months to begin a series examining these events in both the historical context in which they occurred as well as their broader implications for the world today. The years of 1917 and 1918 were the final years of the war, and much of the societal upheaval that occurred in the world took place during this period. It was during this time that the United States entered the war, that the last Russian Emperor, Tsar Nicholas II, abdicated his throne, and that the Bolshevik Revolution occurred. These years saw the continuance of the Armenian Genocide, and the publication of the Balfour Declaration and the Zimmerman Telegram. It saw the return of unrestricted submarine warfare, the Nivelle Offensive and the mud of Passchendaele. Lenin arrived in Petrograd, and Kaiser Wilhelm II went into exile, where he would eventually abdicate his throne. The Romanovs were executed, Manfred von Richtofen, better known as the Red Baron, was killed in action, and Serbian assassin Gavrilo Princip, whose fatal bullet started the entire affair, died of tuberculosis in prison.

All of these things and more are events and names on which I intend to focus, examining their larger role in the history of the conflict and the part they played in reshaping the world into what it is today. Incorporated into this will be discussion of the technologies that made the war possible, and the ways in which the difficult conditions under which the war was fought drove nations to adapt that technology to fit this modern form of warfare. At the same time, I also intend to ruminate on decisions made during the war, and how they affected the outcome, decisions like Germany’s early adherence to the ill-fated “Schlieffen Plan,” as well as their decision to continue practices like unrestricted submarine warfare and their encouragement of Mexico to attack the United States in the eventuality of American involvement in the war. I will conduct a nation-by-nation examination of how the war affected each individual nation and the relational problems it created in the future with the surrounding regions. And finally, and perhaps most importantly, I would like to reflect on the lessons we can learn from World War I, and how it can help shape the way we look at current events. My goal is to help readers come to a greater understanding of the war, to evaluate the ways in which it has shaped our world, and perhaps gain a more intimate awareness of the world as it was in 1917 and 1918.

• • •

1 Von Moltke, as qtd. In G.J. Meyer, A World Undone (New York: Bantam Dell, 2006).

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